Treaty On Principles Governing The Activities
Of States In The Exploration And Use Of Outer Space, Including The Moon And Other Celestial Bodies
Treaties And Principles On Outer Space (ISBN 92-1-100900-6)
Convention On International
Liability For Damage Caused By Space Objects
ICAMSR Founder and Executive Director Barry E. DiGregorio has written
an article covering the history of planetary protection spanning the
years 1959 to 2001 for the August issue of CHEMICAL INNOVATION
magazine published by the American Chemical Society.
The dilemma of Mars sample return,
Chemical Innovation 2001, 31 (8), 24-33. Copyright © 2001
American Chemical Society. This article expresses the views of the
author and not necessarily those of Chemical Innovation magazine or
the American Chemical Society.
In June of 2001 the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration,
Space Studies Board of the National Research Council has placed
online a new 132 page report entitled The Quarantine and Certification of Martian
Samples which plainly states that NASA did not have and still
does not have an adequate facility to examine Martian soil samples
for extraterrestrial microorganisms. The report further states that a
proper quarantine facility would have to be like no other on Earth
and would take at least seven to ten years to build. However, this
report does not address how the Martian soil samples would be
delivered from Mars to Earth.
In August of 2001, the Planetary Society placed online an important
series of opinions that originally appeared in their magazine:
The Planetary Report. The opinions expressed came
from NASA's Planetary Protection Officer, Dr. John Rummel, SETI
biologist Margaret Race, and Dr. Kenneth H. Nealson, Director of the
Center of Life Detection, NASA/JPL along with others regarding the
Mars Sample Return mission and planetary protection.
Is a Mars Sample Return Mission too Risky? A Public Hearing Case Study
by Troy D. Wood, Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State
University of New York. In this study is explained the background and
arguments for and against Mars Sample Return.
COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy (20 October 2002)
Accepted by the council and bureau, as moved for adoption byt SC F & PPP
(Prepared by the COSPAR/IAU Workshop on Planetary Protection, 4/02 with
SSB Project 2003 - Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars
Have we contaminated Mars with robotic spacecraft already? This new study will try
and attempt to provide new solutions for sending sterilized robotic vehicles to Mars.
A Draft Test Protocol for Detecting Possible Biohazards
in Martian Samples Returned to Earth (NASA/CP 2002-211842).
NASA has prepared a draft protocol for the testing and evaluation of samples
that may be returned from Mars by future missions in its Mars exploration
program. This protocol is designed to provide a model method whereby such
samples can be tested for possible biohazards that could be present if life
exists on Mars. The protocol has been prepared as a draft to guide the
development of both a final protocol to accomplish biohazard and
life-detection testing, and to aid in the eventual design of the facility or
facilities that will be required to accomplish that testing. Public comment
on this draft protocol is sought to provide for refinement of the draft and
to provide information for future NASA planning efforts.
Emerging Risk Assessment and Management Controversies in the Mars Sample Return
presented to: 27th Annual Natural Hazards Research and Applications Workshop
Boulder, CO, 14-17 July 2002.
Astroenvironmentalism: The Case for Space Exploration As An Environmental Issue
Well, this says it all.
Safe Passage: Astronaut Care for Exploration Missions
What dangers does Mars present to human explorers who may eventually venture there?
Before a human mission to Mars can ever be attempted, we must make certain we have
taken all necessary precautions.
An Analysis of the Precursor Measurements of Mars Needed to Reduce the Risk of the First Human Mission to Mars
An Analysis of the Precursor Measurements of Mars Needed to Reduce the Risk
of the First Human Mission to Mars - A June 2, 2005 MEPAG report suggesting
that NASA must take precautions to prevent the biological contamination of
astronaut crews on Mars and returning it to the Earth.
Is Space Law Failing? Protecting Planets From Us. And Us From Them.
A revealing look at how planetary protection laws have been manipulated by space faring agencies
and how they could impact life on Earth and Mars. By ICAMSR Director Barry E. DiGregorio for EARTH
magazine published by the American Geological Instititute, AUGUST 2009 vol. 54, no.8.